Written Translation
Working definition of translation: Translation is transfering the meaning of a written text in one language into a written text in another language, while preserving the semantic and lexical values of the source (the original language), and at the same time respecting the syntactic, lexical and semantic values of the target language. The process of translation involves not only rendition of lexical items (words), but also appropriate rendition of syntax (grammar) and semantics (meaning). If the source (original) text uses idiomatic expressions, the target text (outcome of translation) should preserve the meanings of these expressions by using appropriate idioms in the target language.

Certified (sworn) translations include both written translation and interpreting. Sworn translations are required mainly by official institutions and these are e.g. birth certificates, diplomas, wills, marriage certificates as well as memorandum of association, companies documents.

Consecutive interpretation
The interpreter sits at the conference table with the delegates, listening to whomever is speaking in the source language and making notes as the speech progresses. When the speaker has finished, the interpreter reproduces (consecutively) the message in the target language, in its entirety and as though s/he were making the original speech.